E8 Waste

the image shows the basics in steps of waste disposal and how it shows that the different steps of how waste is disposed in forms.

this image shows the differences in waste disposals and how it relates to actual real experiences and how it is sent to recycling places and how it goes to different sections such as friendly/unfriendly places.

1. Two methods of waste disposal are landfill and incineration.

(a) Outline each of the above methods

Incineration is the process of burning a material so that only ashes remain, and landfill is method of solid waste disposal in which refuse is buried between layers of dirt so as to fill in or reclaim low-lying ground.

(b) Compare these two methods of waste disposal

Landfill is surely easier to manage than incineration, as it also produces less harmful pollution, where as incineration creates large amount of air pollutant as ash is generated, and there is also a loss in recycling things. But it is a long term security of waste handling. Landfill release high concentration of methane and water pollution and can also create a bad smell. 

2(a) Describe the recycling of metal products

Aluminum is one of the easiest metals to recycle, in this process the metal is broken down into pieces and is shipped off to be reused in aluminum products and cans. As  Aluminum cans are reduced this also reduces the pollution around the world. 

(b) Outline the benefits of recycling

The benefits of recycling are that we can reuse products that are used before by broken down the pieces are producing more cans or products that need to be used. Also,  this is a way of reducing pollution in the air. Some people even get paid for recycling items. 

Describe the characteristics and sources of low level and high level radioactive waste.

High level waste has a longer half life, it is vitrified, as it is made into glass and buried underground, like in granite, in deep mines, under water, in steel containers.

Low level waste has a shorter half life and is stored under water, in steel containers, and is discharged directly into sea.

(b) Compare the disposal methods for these two types of radioactive waste.

There are many types of radioactive waste, for example the low level waste is stored in cooling ponds until a certain activity is fast. This passes through ions and removes isotops for each activity. The waste is then washed away into the sea. The other type of waste is High level waste which takes thousands of years to lose the activity. The fuel in this is used to be reused. This tends to be a liquid rather than a solid and its dried up and fed into melting parts which then leads to sand. These are stored in salt. 

This link is an article with a video of how Bill Gates talks about how we should reduce the nuclear waste around the world.

http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2010-02/video-bill-gates-agrees-obama-we-need-nukes

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E7 Soil

this image shows the soil and the different horizons that is shown in the image from the root of the ground and the soil sunken into the roots and surrounded by sand also how it builds up into a plant.

this image shows the different layers that soils holds and how its held into different horizons, this shows that each layer and how the sun seeps into the soil and grows up a plant.

(i) State a main constituent of SOM.

A main constituent are decayed plant, non living organic

(ii) Explain with reference to the structure above, how SOM can increase the soil quality, in terms of the following

Provision of nutrients:

It contains amine, amino acid (COOH), it can be interchanged by ions of nutrients, ion exchange of nutrients can occur due to H (COOH)

Water retention

It has OH.NH polar, as it can create hydrogen bonds with water molecules in the soil

(b) Discuss how irrigation can cause soil degradation

Irrigation contains sodium (Salt) when evaporation happens the salts stay, as there will be more build up in salt, which has an effect on plants. As they do not grow on soil that as high amount of salt, with irrigation, water can remove nutrients. (Ca^2+, K^+, etc).

(c) State the name of one source for each of the following organic soil pollutants.

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Coal

Organotin compounds

Presticides

this link talks about the soil texture of the environment.

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E6 Water Treatment

this image is a blank and white image of the water system through each pipes and drains and how it gets cleaned and transferred through the system in a diagram.

this image talks about the water treatment system and how the water transfers from each system and leads to the soil and roots at the end of the image.

review questions;

Waste water can contain metal ions such as chromium. Chromium ions can cause damage to the liver and kidneys. Chromium ions can be removed from water by chemical precipitation using hydroxide ions.

(a) Assuming chromium is present as Cr3- , state an equation for its reaction with hydroxide ions, include state symbols. [2]

(b) State an expression for the solubility product constant, K, for chromium (III) hydroxide. [1]

(c) The solubility product of chromium (III) hydroxide is 1.00×10-33 mol4 dm-12 at 298 K. Calculate the concentration, in mol dm-3, of Cr3+ in the solution, when chromium (III) hydroxide is precipated. [2]

1.   (a) Two processes used to treat sewage are filtration and chemical precipitation.

(i)  Name the type of substance removed by filtration and the equipment used to do this. [2]

(ii) Name the type of substance removed by chemical precipitation and a chemical used to do this. [2]

(b) (i)  State two advantages of treating drinking water with ozone rather than chlorine. [2]

(ii) Other than cost, name one disadvantage of treating drinking water with ozone  rather than chlorine. [1]

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E5 Dissolved Oxygen in Water

this image shows the content of oxygen being dissolved into water through the different colors on the scale.

source: 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

this image shows the oxygen being dissolved into the water through the diagram which is described on the diagram itself. this shows the way it shows the arrows and explanations.

review questions;

water purity is often assessed by reference to its oxygen content.

(a) Outline the meaning of the term biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). [2]

The amount of oxygen needed to decompose organic matter (in water sample); in a specified time, at a specified temperature

(b) Describe how the dissolved oxygen concentration in a river would decrease if

(i) a car factory releases warm water into the river after using it cooling. [1]

Oxygen less soluble in hot water

(ii) a farmer puts large quantities of a fertilizer on a field next to the river. [1]

Fertilizer causes excessive algae growth so oxygen concentration is reduced

(c) The winkler method uses redox reactions to find the concentration of oxygen in water. 100 cm3 of water was taken from a river and analysed using this method. The reactions taking place are summarized below.

(i) State what happened to the O2 in step 1 in terms of electrons. [1]

There is gain in number of electrons

(ii) State the change in oxidation number for manganese in step 2. [1]

From +4 it is +2, so it decreased by 2

(iii) 0.002 moles of I- were formed in step 3. Calculate the amount in moles of oxygen, O2- dissolved in water, [1]

0.00005/5*10^-5

(d) Due to the shortage of fresh water in many parts of the planet, scientists have designed ways to convert sea water to fresh water. Outline how multi-stage distillation converts sea water to fresh water. [3]

In order to convert, the sea water is heated then goes to a container, where pressure is lower, where boiling will occur and then only a small part becomes into steam and the remaining water will be sent through other process, as it will have low pressure.

(a) Suggest one way in which a householder could reduce the amount of water used. [1]

Saving water through not leaving the tap running when not being used, also by not leaving water unattended. Water is usually used way more in a household because of the amount of unattended water we leave running.

(b) Water that allows marine life to flourish needs a high concentration of dissolved oxygen. Several factors can alter the oxygen concentration.

(i) State how an increase in temperature affects the oxygen concentration. [1]

the water decreases in the temperature affects of oxygen concentration

  (ii) Eutrophication is a process that decreases the oxygen concentration of water. Explain how the accidental release of nitrates into a river can cause eutrophication. [2]

Plant life is important because the algae increases then dies, and also it decays and consumes oxygen. 

youtube video based on dissolved oxygen.

Posted in E5 Dissolved Oxygen in Water | Leave a comment

E4 Ozone Depletion

this image shows the rays being sent onto the ozone layer and shows the depletion of the ozone layer.

this image shows the cycle of the ozone depletion and how its shown to be depleted.

this shows the rays being sent off to different sides and how the ozone depletion is transferred off.

review questions;

(c) discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using hydrocarbon in place of CFC’s. [2]

The advantage is that the bond between C-Cl is not weak, it does not release Cl atoms.

The disadvantage is that, it has the ability to absorb infrared radiation, increased greenhouse effect, and causes global warming.

(a) write equations for the natural formation of ozone. [2]

O+O2 – O3

Chlorofluorocarbons, CFC’s, deplete the ozone layer.

(a) State the equations that represent the depletion of ozone in the stratosphere which is catalysed by chlorine free radicals. [2]

O + O3 → 2 O2

(b) Chlorine atoms and nitrogen oxides react at the surface of ice particles in the arctic winter.

(i) Deduce the type of catalysis that occurs. [1]

ice 

(ii) Outline why the depletion of ozone is greatest during the arctic spring. [2]

The arctic spring has the greatest ozone depletion during this time of the year because the arctic ozone has a hole in an area of the stratosphere and that has brought its level to as low as 33%. 

Chlorofluorocarbons, CFC’s, deplete the ozone layer.

Freon 

(a) State the name of one source of CFC’s. [1]

Air conditioner

(b) In terms of their properties, suggest two reasons why CFC’s continue to be used widely. [2]

Because it can be made into room temperature, there is less toxicity and flammability.

(c) State one advantage and one disadvantage of using tetrafluoromethane as an alternative to CFC’s. [2]

The advantage is that it is stable, and there is no ozone depletion.

The disadvantage is that it still has an effect on the greenhouse gas causing global warming.

Posted in E4 Ozone Depletion | Leave a comment

E3 Greenhouse Effect

this shows the greenhouse effect from the sun onto the earth and the outer most layer of the earth.

this shows the greenhouse effect from the sun and how it bounces back from the side of the earth back into the air.

review questions;

(a) two of the major greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are methane andc carbon dioxide. State two other major greenhouse gases.

H2O(Water Vapor), N2O (Nitrous oxide, dinitrogen monoxide), Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCsCCl2F2), Ozone (O3)

(b) Discuss which two gases from the four gases in part (a) are the most significant for global warming.

CH4(methane)/N2)- it is most effect at absorbing radiation

CFC-more effecting at absorbing radiation and has a very long life span in the atmosphere.

(c) Discuss two effects of global warming.

The effect that takes place during global warming is the thermal expansion of the ocean, changes in sea temperature affecting sea life, there is raising sea levels, floods, droughts, changes in precipitation and temperature. Changes in migration patterns of animals.

1 (a) using carbon dioxide as an example, explain how greenhouse gases contribute to global warming [3]

Many factories produce long-lasting industrial gases don’t occur naturally but enhance greenhouse effect and “global warming” that is currently going on. Deforestation also contributes to global warming. Population growth is another factor in global warming, because as more people use fossil fuels for heat, transportation and manufacturing the level of greenhouse gases continues to increase. 

(b) the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels produces particulates. Explain how particulates in the atmosphere can affect the Earth’s surface temperature? [1]

The particulates in the atmosphere affect the Earth’s surface by reflecting incoming radiation in order to stop the Earth’s surface from warming or heating up. 

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E2 Acid Deposition

diagram of acid desposition

this is a diagram shows the air desposition and how its moves.

this is a chemistry diagram of the acid desposition and how it transfers in the air around the clouds; stated with the equations.

review questions;

(a) Explain using an equation why rain falling in unpolluted air is acidic with a pH of about 5.7. [2]

Because it contains dissolved CO2

CO2 + H2O        H2CO3  / CO2 + H2O         H++ HCO3

(b) “Acid rain” has a pH less than 5.6. Explain using an equation how the burning of coal can contribute to acid rain formation. [2]

Coal Contains Sulfur, burning it would give CO2

S + O2               SO2        /       SO2 + H2O            H2SO3

(c) “Acid rain” can affect plants and buildings.

(i) Outline how an acidic soil can damage the growth of trees. [1]

It  leaches and removes nutrients (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+)

(ii) Give an equation for the reaction of acid rain on marble statues or limestone buildings. [1]

CaCO3 + 2H+         Ca2+ + CO2 + H2O

(d) Explain how the addition of calcium oxide to lakes could neutralize the effects of “acid rain”. [1]

CaO is a basic acid so it neutralize acid in lake 

video link on acid desposition..

this video talks about the acid desposition in the air and atmosphere around us.

 

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